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From the Firehose

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The difference between finance and economics

Economics

What Is Economics?

Economics is a social science that studies the production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services, with the aim of explaining how economies work and how their agents interact. Although labeled a "social science" and often treated as one of the liberal arts, modern economics is in fact often very quantitative and heavily math-oriented in practice. There are two main branches of economics: macroeconomics and microeconomics.

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Investment Bank

What is an 'Investment Bank (IB)'

An investment bank (IB) is a financial intermediary that performs a variety of services. Investment banks specialize in large and complex financial transactions, such as underwriting, acting as an intermediary between a securities issuer and the investing public, facilitating mergers and other corporate reorganizations, and acting as a broker and/or financial advisor for institutional clients. Major investment banks include Barclays, BofA Merrill Lynch, Rothschild , Goldman Sachs, Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley, UBS, Credit Suisse, Citibank and Lazard. Some investment banks specialize in particular industry sectors. Many investment banks also have retail operations that serve small, individual customers.

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Pension Plan

What is a 'Pension Plan'

A pension plan is a retirement plan that requires an employer to make contributions into a pool of funds set aside for a worker's future benefit. The pool of funds is invested on the employee's behalf, and the earnings on the investments generate income to the worker upon retirement.

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The legacy of the discipline of geopolitics

The disciplines of geoeconomic and geopolitics are closely intertwined. The discipline of geopolitics has a burden full past and can only progress through self-critique: that is through criticism of the discipline itself. For instance, it must be made clear what in geopolitics is objective and what is normative. So far this criticism has come mostly from outside, from its opponents, whether they represent critical geopolitics, political geography, or mainstream political science.

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Environmental science

Environmental science, interdisciplinary academic field that draws on ecology, geology, meteorology, biology, chemistry, engineering, and physics to study environmental problems and human impacts on the environment. Environmental science is a quantitative discipline with both applied and theoretical aspects and has been influential in informing the policies of governments around the world.

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Ecology

Ecology, also called bioecology, bionomics, or environmental biology, study of the relationships between organisms and their environment. Some of the most pressing problems in human affairs—expanding populations, food scarcities, environmental pollution including global warming, extinctions of plant and animal species, and all the attendant sociological and political problems—are to a great degree ecological.

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Geology

Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth. Included are sciences such as mineralogy, geodesy, and stratigraphy. An introduction to the geochemical and geophysical sciences logically begins with mineralogy, because Earth’s rocks are composed of minerals—inorganic elements or compounds that have a fixed chemical composition and that are made up of regularly aligned rows of atoms.

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Biology

Biology, study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. Modern principles of other fields—chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example—are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.

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Active Directory Domain Services Overview

A directory is a hierarchical structure that stores information about objects on the network. A directory service, such as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), provides the methods for storing directory data and making this data available to network users and administrators. For example, AD DS stores information about user accounts, such as names, passwords, phone numbers, and so on, and enables other authorized users on the same network to access this information.

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What is LDAP and how does LDAP authentication work

LDAP stands for “Lightweight Directory Access Protocol”. It is a simplification of the X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP) used to access directory information. A directory is essentially a special-purpose database optimized to handle identity-related information.

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Bash shell parameters

A parameter is an entity that stores values. It can be a name, a number, or one of the special characters listed below. For the shell's purposes, a variable is a parameter denoted by a name.

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Bash Arrays

Bash provides one-dimensional array variables. Any variable can be used as an array; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array. There is no maximum limit on the size of an array, nor any requirement that members be indexed or assigned contiguously. Arrays are zero-based.

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Bash Environment

When a program is invoked it is given an array of strings called the environment.

This is a list of name-value pairs, of the form NAME=value.

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Define a bash shell function

Shell functions are a way to group commands for later execution using a single name for the group. They are executed just like a regular command. When the name of a shell function is used as a simple command name, the list of commands associated with that function name will be executed.

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bash Permissions

Linux/unix system permissions allow or prevent other users from viewing, modifying or executing any particular file.

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